Networking Terms and Meanings

Last Updated on

NCS – Mike, KC7PLE – 4-29-19

  • Networking Acroniyms and what they mean
    • TCP/IP
      • Transfer Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
      • What local networks and the internet uses to communicate between computers using data packets.
      • Most modern computer use to Network together.
      • There are other protocals but are not widely uses for local networks.
    • IP address
      • Internet Protocol Address
      • 192.168.1.1 (common address for a home router)
      • Hostname
        • Network Name of the computer
        • A hostname is the label (the name) assigned to a device (a host) on a network and is used to distinguish one device from another on a specific network.
    • Domain
      • A network domain is an administrative grouping of multiple private computer networks or hosts within the same infrastructure.
      • kc7nyr.com, or kc7mm.com, or comcast.com Etc.
      • Static IP Address
        • A static IP address is an IP address that was manually configured for a device, versus one that was assigned via a DHCP server. It’s called static because it doesn’t change
        • Used mostly for servers or devices such as routers, gateways, Access points, and sometimes printers.
    • Gateway
      • A gateway is a node on a network that serves as an entrance to another network. In enterprises, the gateway is the computer that routes the traffic from a workstation to the outside network
    • Router
      • A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions and can provide a DHCP server, and NAT services
    • NAT Network Address Translation
      • Is a method of remapping one IP address into another by modifying network address information in the IP header of packets.
      • Helps keep your home network from being seen through your ISP’s Modem.
      • 75.65.126.50 to 192.168.1.x
    • Access Point
      • Dumb Router Usually used to extend the range of a wireless network
      • Or used when the router does not have an internal Wifi device
      • No DHCP Servers no NAT functions and no other traffic handeling.

MAC Address

    • A media access control address (MAC address) of a device is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller (NIC)
    • Also known as a Hardware Address
    • Why do I need to know it.
      • If there are multiple NIC’s knowing the MAC address will assure you are working with the right device
      • MAC addresses can be used to help with security on a router.
    • How do I find it.
      • ipcoinfg (Example below)
  • DHCP
    • Dynamic Host Control Protocol
    • Dynamicly assisgns IP to a host.
    • Those address have a “lease” time. Then the Address can change. Although ususally stays the same if the host does not stay off the network for too long. Think Laptop.
  • DNS
    • Domanin Name Service
      • The Domain Name System (DNS) is a naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to a network.
      • Creates a list of network device names and their associated IP addresses and will translate hostnames or Websites into IP Addresses
      • Web Based DNS
        • 1.1.1.1
          • Opensource
          • Does not track usage
        • 8.8.8.8
          • Googe’s DNS server
          • Free to use
          • Tracks use
        • 75.75.75.75
          • Comcast
          • tracks use
          • Not Recommended
        • Other DNS services
          • Service prividers usually have their own DNS servers.
          • Can be private to that company, or will be open for anyone to use.

Quick Tips & Notes:

Find Host name from IP
nmblookup -A [ip]

Looks at all the IP addresses of that subnet. Shows both IP Addrsses and hostname of the systems.
nmap -sL 192.168.xx.xx

Renew your IP address (run as sudo)
ifconfig [adapter] down
ifconfig [adpater] up
or
ifup [adapter]
ifdown [adapter]

To find you’re MAC address
ifconifg -a
Look for Ether: xx:xx:xx:xx or HWadd: xx:xx:xx:xx

ifconfig example. The highlighted portions are as follows:
enp6s0 = network device name
inet 192.168.88.109 = IPV4 address
ether 00:23:ae:ad:b6:25 = MAC address (Hardware Address)

xx@xx-lxmint:~$ ifconfig -a
enp6s0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500

inet 192.168.88.109 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.88.255
inet6 fe80::e81c:3833:b66e:860d prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x20<link>
ether 00:23:ae:ad:b6:25 txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet)
RX packets 51961870 bytes 69652755521 (69.6 GB)
RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0
TX packets 27408009 bytes 3183318987 (3.1 GB)
TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0
device interrupt 17

nmblookup -A example:
Highlighted is the hostname of the target computer

xx@xx-lxmint:~$ nmblookup -A 192.168.88.131
Looking up status of 192.168.88.131

WORKGROUP <00> – <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
Target-PC <00> – B <ACTIVE>
Target-PC <20> – B <ACTIVE>
WORKGROUP <1e> – <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>

MAC Address = 00-26-B9-89-67-1D

 


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