Last Updated on
NCS – Mike, KC7PLE – 4-29-19
- Networking Acroniyms and what they mean
- Transfer Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
- What local networks and the internet uses to communicate between computers using data packets.
- Most modern computer use to Network together.
- There are other protocals but are not widely uses for local networks.
- IP address
- Internet Protocol Address
- 192.168.1.1 (common address for a home router)
- Network Name of the computer
- A hostname is the label (the name) assigned to a device (a host) on a network and is used to distinguish one device from another on a specific network.
- A network domain is an administrative grouping of multiple private computer networks or hosts within the same infrastructure.
- kc7nyr.com, or kc7mm.com, or comcast.com Etc.
- Static IP Address
- A static IP address is an IP address that was manually configured for a device, versus one that was assigned via a DHCP server. It’s called static because it doesn’t change
- Used mostly for servers or devices such as routers, gateways, Access points, and sometimes printers.
- A gateway is a node on a network that serves as an entrance to another network. In enterprises, the gateway is the computer that routes the traffic from a workstation to the outside network
- A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions and can provide a DHCP server, and NAT services
- NAT Network Address Translation
- Is a method of remapping one IP address into another by modifying network address information in the IP header of packets.
- Helps keep your home network from being seen through your ISP’s Modem.
- 18.104.22.168 to 192.168.1.x
- Access Point
- Dumb Router Usually used to extend the range of a wireless network
- Or used when the router does not have an internal Wifi device
- No DHCP Servers no NAT functions and no other traffic handeling.
- A media access control address (MAC address) of a device is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller (NIC)
- Also known as a Hardware Address
- Why do I need to know it.
- If there are multiple NIC’s knowing the MAC address will assure you are working with the right device
- MAC addresses can be used to help with security on a router.
- How do I find it.
- ipcoinfg (Example below)
- Dynamic Host Control Protocol
- Dynamicly assisgns IP to a host.
- Those address have a “lease” time. Then the Address can change. Although ususally stays the same if the host does not stay off the network for too long. Think Laptop.
- Domanin Name Service
- The Domain Name System (DNS) is a naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to a network.
- Creates a list of network device names and their associated IP addresses and will translate hostnames or Websites into IP Addresses
- Web Based DNS
- Does not track usage
- Googe’s DNS server
- Free to use
- Tracks use
- tracks use
- Not Recommended
- Other DNS services
- Service prividers usually have their own DNS servers.
- Can be private to that company, or will be open for anyone to use.
- Domanin Name Service
Quick Tips & Notes:
Find Host name from IP
nmblookup -A [ip]
Looks at all the IP addresses of that subnet. Shows both IP Addrsses and hostname of the systems.
nmap -sL 192.168.xx.xx
Renew your IP address (run as sudo)
ifconfig [adapter] down
ifconfig [adpater] up
To find you’re MAC address
Look for Ether: xx:xx:xx:xx or HWadd: xx:xx:xx:xx
ifconfig example. The highlighted portions are as follows:
enp6s0 = network device name
inet 192.168.88.109 = IPV4 address
ether 00:23:ae:ad:b6:25 = MAC address (Hardware Address)
xx@xx-lxmint:~$ ifconfig -a
enp6s0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
inet 192.168.88.109 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.88.255
inet6 fe80::e81c:3833:b66e:860d prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x20<link>
ether 00:23:ae:ad:b6:25 txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet)
RX packets 51961870 bytes 69652755521 (69.6 GB)
RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0
TX packets 27408009 bytes 3183318987 (3.1 GB)
TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0
device interrupt 17
nmblookup -A example:
Highlighted is the hostname of the target computer
xx@xx-lxmint:~$ nmblookup -A 192.168.88.131
Looking up status of 192.168.88.131
WORKGROUP <00> – <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
Target-PC <00> – B <ACTIVE>
Target-PC <20> – B <ACTIVE>
WORKGROUP <1e> – <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
MAC Address = 00-26-B9-89-67-1D
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